The risks here are a guide; your own risk may vary. You should discuss the risks and benefits of surgery with your surgeon, especially if you are worried.
General risks of thoracic surgery apply to surgical lung biopsy.
In addition the following are risks of surgical lung biopsy:
Minor more common risks
Air leaking from the lung into the chest drain for a few days is common after lung surgery. Occasionally this lasts for longer, possibly weeks. A chest drain will need to be in place until this settles, you may be able to go home with the chest drain still in and come back for regular check-ups until the air leak settles.
Your kidneys may not work as well after surgery but this is usually temporary and gets better with extra fluid.
Major less common risks
You may experience a flare up of your breathing symptoms after surgery. This could be a slight change or may cause severe breathlessness. Shortness of breath may severe enough to require help from a ventilator machine. This can be with a face mask with you fully awake. It may also be need via a tube in your windpipe with you under sedation. If you need help breathing via a tube for a long time it may be better to have a temporary tracheostomy. This is a tube put in through the neck which is removed once breathing improves. The risk of death from a surgical lung biopsy is 1 in 100 nationally, this also means 99 in 100 people recovery from surgery.